Application of colloidal gold in biology and medical diagnostics
Colloidal gold and various derivatives have long been among the most widely used markers for antigens in biological electron microscopy. Colloidal gold particles can be attached to many traditional biological probes such as antibodies, lectins, superantigens, glycans, nucleic acids, and receptors.
Functionalized gold nanoparticles with controlled geometric and optical properties are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications, including genomics, biosensority, immunoassays, clinical chemistry, laser phototherapy of cancer cells and tumors, targeted delivery of drugs, DNA and antigens, optical bioimaging, and monitoring of cells and tissues using state-of-the-art detection systems.
Colloidal gold is also widely applied in medical diagonosis.
Immunological tests are based on the specific biological recognition mechanism of the antigen-antibody reaction. Colloidal gold technology is the most representative immunochromatographic detection method. It combines the antigen-antibody immune response with colloidal gold labeling technology for qualitative or quantitative detection of antigen and antibody content, and test results are usually obtained within 5-10 minutes. Detectable indicators of the colloidal gold immunochromatographic method include hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human chorionic gonadotropin (human chorionic gonadotropin, HCG, early pregnancy test), anti-double DNA antibodies strand, etc. The colloidal gold method uses lateral flow assay technology to centralize sample pretreatment, sample addition, reagent mixing and other operations on a single chip, and has a required closed environment for in vitro diagnostic testing. It’s simple, practical and inexpensive. This is the most commonly used POCT method.
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