Sex cells! Are there only two biological sexes? [Part 2 of 2] – Scientific friction


It’s a political hot potato. It is misused to coerce and contain people.

The way we talk about biological sex is a battleground of conflicting agendas and experiences.

But Nature offers us a much larger and more wild vision than a basic binary – male and female.

In the confusing labyrinth of sexual reproduction, sex hormones, sex chromosomes and genitals … are there only two biological sexes … or could biological sex exist on a continuum just like the kind?


Art Arnold
Emeritus professor
Integrative biology and physiology
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)

Jenny Graves
Vice-Chancellor Fellow and Emeritus Professor
Ecology, Environment & Evolution
Latrobe University, Australia

Paul griffiths
Australian Research Council Fellow and Professor of Philosophy
Co-author of Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction (2013)
Griffiths Laboratory
University of Sydney, Australia

Dr Simon (e) Sun
Postdoctoral fellow, Tollkuhn Lab, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL)
Principal Investigator, Center for Advanced Transgender Studies

More information :

Sex is real (Aeon Magazine, 2021)
By Paul Griffiths

Stop using fake science to justify transphobia (American scientist, 2019)
By Simon (e) Sun

Quantum sex: intersex and the molecular deconstruction of sex (GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 2009)
By Vernon Rosario

A general theory of sexual differentiation (JNR: Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2016)
By Arthur Arnold

Human Y chromosome, sex determination and spermatogenesis: a feminist perspective (Journal of Reproductive Biology, 2000)
By Jennifer Graves

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